It is also one of the most diverse and rich ecosystems in the world. Industrial turf harvesting involves huge tractors that scrape peat from the surface of bogs. With increased time and higher temperatures, these low-rank coals are gradually converted to subbituminous and bituminous coal and under certain conditions to anthracite. It only consists of three percent of terrestrial land but it stores nearly 30 percent of soil carbon. Peat is the product created from organic matters that submerged into the bogs. Aqui encaixam-se também os substantivos compostos compostos. Many countries exploit and sell their peat resources, especially Ireland, Scotland, and Finland. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. If however some growers use peat in plug plants to save costs then other suppliers not using peat may become 'too expensive' and be priced out of the market. Similar to coal, these briquettes contain the energy of the dead plants. Peat Bogs A peat bog is a type of wetland whose soft, spongy ground is composed largely of living and decaying Sphagnum moss. Peat, or turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation.Peat forms in wetland bogs, moors, mires, and swamps.. Peats may be divided into several types, including fibric, coarse hemic, hemic, fine hemic, and sapric, based on their macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical characteristics. In temperate, boreal and sub-arctic regions, where low temperatures (below freezing for long periods during the winter) reduce the rate of decomposition, peat is formed mainly from bryophytes (mostly sphagnum mosses), herbs, shrubs and small trees. When dry, the blocks weigh from 0.34 to 0.91 kg (0.75 to 2 pounds). The addition of organic matter to soil helps aid nutrient provision, optimizes water management and potentially sequesters carbon thus helping mitigate climate change. The peat bogs are lacustrine basins of glacial origin that today contain more … Omissions? Although peat is used as a source of energy, it is not usually considered a coal. Peat moss is an affordable growing medium with great water holding capacity - but what is the environmental cost of using peat? Peat is the surface organic layer of a soil that consists of partially decomposed organic matter, derived mostly from plant material, which has accumulated under conditions of waterlogging, oxygen deficiency, high acidity and nutrient deficiency. Virtually all rural households are now connected to the national electricity network, which relies partly on hydroelectric plants and on small and medium-sized peat-burning thermal power stations. Some of these include the large red damselfly, the sundew plant and cottongrass. The transition to brown coal takes place slowly and is usually reached at depths ranging from 100 to 400 metres (approximately 330 to 1,300 feet). The formation of peat is the first step in the formation of coal. The Whisky Peat Scale. Consequently, the production of organic matter exceeds its decomposition, which results in a net accumulation of peat. Peat, an organic fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands. In the lowland humid tropics, peat is derived mostly from rain forest trees (leaves, branches, trunks and roots) under near constant annual high temperatures. Peat is the "forgotten fossil fuel. Peat is only a minor contributor to the world energy supply, but large deposits occur in Canada, China, Indonesia, Russia, Scandinavia, and the United States. It is…. Over time, peat deposits have the potential to evolve into coal. O PEAT consiste em tutorias individualizadas conduzidas por docentes para acompanhamento e orientação dos estudantes na UFABC, principalmente os ingressantes, visando fortalecer seu vínculo e sua adaptação à vida universitária e ao projeto pedagógico da instituição. And hence the name peat moss. Peat is cut in small slices and piled up into small pyramids for drying. And with the level of peat smoke in each whiskey differing, the peaty-ness will vary from whiskey to whiskey. Peat definition, a highly organic material found in marshy or damp regions, composed of partially decayed vegetable matter: it is cut and dried for use as fuel. They generally develop in cool climates with small seasonal temperature fluctuations and over one meter of rainfall and over 160 rain days each year.Fig. The peat slippage in Co Donegal sent trees coursing downhill. ( as modifier ): peat bog. Said more succinctly, it’s sort of like coal, but much softer, and can be used as fuel. The pulp is cut into blocks, which are spread to dry. In the early 21st century the top four peat producers in the world were Finland, Ireland, Belarus, and Sweden, and most of the major users of peat were these and other northern European countries. Some wetlands result from high groundwater levels, whereas some elevated bogs are the result of heavy rainfall. It is the precursor material from which coals are derived, and the process by which peat is formed is studied in existing swamps in many parts of the…, For centuries hand-cut peat, or turf, was the rural population’s principal domestic fuel. Although peat is not strictly a fossil fuel, its greenhouse gas emissions are comparable to that of fossil fuels. Peat, fuel consisting of spongy material formed by the partial decomposition of organic matter, primarily plant material, in wetlands such as swamps, muskegs, bogs, fens, and moors. Peat is an excellent energy provider. The ash is powdery and light, except for varieties that have a high content of inorganic matter. It is also used to soften aquaria water and to mimic habitats for freshwater fish. The affect of peat (ie the peatiness or smokiness) on whisky is expressed as phenol parts per million (PPM). Peat can be used in water filtration and is sometimes utilized for the treatment of urban runoff, wastewater, and septic tank effluent. The presence of oxygen (aerobic conditions) is necessary for fungal and microbial activity that promotes decomposition, but peat is formed in waterlogged soils with little or no access to oxygen (anaerobic conditions), largely preventing the complete decomposition of organic material. There are 6 principal global types:(1) Blanket mires: Rain-fed, generally 1-3 m deep. peat. Other authorities have adopted definitions of peat with organic matter content higher than 30% and thickness greater than 30cm. Peat is sometimes considered a “slowly renewable energy” and is classified as a “solid fossil” rather than a biomass fuel by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Peat is used for domestic heating purposes as an alternative to firewood and forms a fuel suitable for boiler firing in either briquetted or pulverized form. Peat-swamp forest also provides important ecosystem services such as flood control, clean water supply, and food. Peat mosses are home to many life forms that have adapted to their surroundings. 2: partially carbonized vegetable tissue formed by partial decomposition in water of various plants (such as mosses of the genus Sphagnum) The peat is washed down by a high-pressure water jet, and the pulp runs to a sump. Learn more. Traditionally, a variety of organic materials have been used as mulches or soil conditioners in order to improve the performance of plants - largely through improved nutrient provision and improved soil water management. Peat definition: Peat is decaying plant material which is found under the ground in some cool , wet... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Dried peat burns readily with a smoky flame and a characteristic odour. Four-peat definition is - a fourth consecutive championship. This is unfortunate because it affects estimates of the area of peatland and determination of important attributes of peat, especially volume and carbon content. See more. In horticulture, peat is used to increase the moisture-holding capacity of sandy soils and to increase the water infiltration rate of clay soils. "While oil, coal, and natural gas are exported around the world, few outside northern Europe are aware of this energy source. Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Location: mainly in Ireland and the UK. https://www.britannica.com/technology/peat, National Geographic - Education - Peat: The Forgotten Fossil Fuel, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - Energy Use of Peat, peatland - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), peat - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In certain circumstances, peat can be an early stage in coal formation. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Peat was the primary domestic fuel in Scotland for a long time due to it’s ready availability in many parts of the country. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Maceration tends to yield more uniform shrinkage and a denser and tougher fuel. Cost – Peat is cheap to extract and peat bogs have few other ‘productive’ uses, so it is very cost effective. 2.Typical blanket mire. Bogs are a type of wetland with a high acid content. P… There, after slight maceration, it is pumped to a draining ground in a layer, which, after partial drying, is cut up and dried further. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Classification peat is an organic soil (Histosol) that contains a minimum of 20% organic matter increasing to 30% if as much as 60% of the mineral matter is clay. For centuries people have used peat, which is similar to coal, as a fuel for heating. “Peaty” is the term used to describe the flavor profile that results from the smoke with tasting notes like cereal-y, grassy, herbal and nutty. Peat is thick, muddy and when harvested, looks like dark, earthen bricks. New types of peat may still be found. peat moss n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. It acts as a carbon store, it is a great habitat for wildlife, it has a role in water management, and preserves things well for archaeology. Hydraulic excavating can also be used, particularly in bogs that contain roots and tree trunks. Peat forms in bogs. Marshes, swamps, floodplains and coastal wetlands may contain peat, however, where the peat deposits are greater than 300-400mm in depth, a distinctive variety of ecosystems are created. ( piːt) n. 1. a. a compact brownish deposit of partially decomposed vegetable matter saturated with water: found in uplands and bogs in temperate and cold regions and used as a fuel (when dried) and as a fertilizer. Peat is a non-renewable resource which is found in Ireland. Source for information on Peat Bogs: Plant Sciences dictionary. For example, in New Zealand peat is formed from members of the Restionaceae while in tropical coastal fringes peat is formed in mangrove. Peatification is influenced by several factors, including the nature of the plant material deposited, the availability of nutrients to support bacterial life, the availability of oxygen, the acidity of the peat, and temperature. Peat may be cut by spade in the form of blocks, which are spread out to dry. In one mechanized method, a dredger or excavator digs the peat from the drained bog and delivers it to a macerator (a device that softens and separates a material into its component parts through soaking), which extrudes the peat pulp through a rectangular opening. Changing the growing media - Millions of plants are grown each spring. Updates? Peat is of great importance to our planet: as a carbon store – peat holds more carbon than the combined forests of Britain, France and Germany Ex. Peatlands are terrestrial wetland ecosystems in which waterlogged conditions prevent plant material from fully decomposing. The peat is actually the generic name that is applied to various materials from the decomposition of vegetables, depending on the environmental conditions of the place where they decompose. Definitions of peat vary across disciplines and between authorities for different purposes and there is no universal agreement that is applicable in all circumstances. Formation. (plant used as organic fertilizer) (substância de origem vegetal) turfa sf substantivo feminino: Substantivo exclusivamente feminino. Although the rate of plant growth in cold regions is very slow, the rate of decomposition of organic matter is also very slow. … The formation of abundant peat was not possible before land plants spread widely during and after the Devonian Period (beginning approximately 419.2 million years ago). Looking for online definition of PEAT or what PEAT stands for? Peat can be formed from different materials, but a large percentage of the peat harvested is composed of sphagnum moss. Peatlands are a type of wetlands which are among the most valuable ecosystems on Earth: they are critical for preserving global biodiversity, provide safe drinking water, … PEAT is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Peat may be distinguished from lower-ranked coals on the basis of four characteristics: peats generally contain free cellulose, more than 75 percent moisture, and less than 60 percent carbon, and they can be cut with a knife. Peat is also used for household cooking in some places and has been used to produce small amounts of electricity. Peat is hugely important to our planet for lots of reasons. With increasing depth of burial and increasing temperature, peat deposits are gradually changed to lignite. About 5% of Ireland is covered by peat Peat is cut from bogs, either blanket bogs or raised bogs. Peat is an accumulation of decayed vegetation that forms over the space of three to five thousand years in wetlands that are called “bogs” or “peat bogs.”. The UK alone has around 13 percent of the total global blanket mire area. It is also added to potting mixes to meet the acidity requirements of certain potted plants. Peat is the surface organic layer of a soil that consists of partially decomposed organic matter, derived mostly from plant material, which has accumulated under conditions of waterlogging, oxygen deficiency, high acidity and nutrient deficiency. (2) Raised mires: Rain-fed, potentially deep peatlands. Plant material decomposes more rapidly in groundwater rich in nutrients than in elevated bogs with heavy rainfall. b. peat definition: 1. a dark brown substance like soil that was formed by plants dying and becoming buried. The development of peat is favoured by warm moist climatic conditions; however, peat can develop even in cold regions such as Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. "atriz", "menina", etc. Most of the time, however, peat is a unique material. Although peat production was mechanized and industrialized in…. The water drains off the peat very fast and turns the soft slices into hard briquettes. There is disagreement on the minimum thickness of the soil surface organic layer and the minimum percentage of organic matter in it between different definitions of peat. Peat soil is very important. In these nations, blocks are readily available as a fuel source, a… Phenol is a chemical that is produced when peat is burned and during the drying process described above, the malted barley soaks in the phenol which flavours the grain. In other geographical regions peat can be formed from other species of plants that are able to grow in water-saturated conditions. There are a number of uses for it, although the two primary ones are as a type of fuel and as a fertilizer. Traditional peat harvesting involves a farmer cutting thick strips of peat with a large, sharp hoe. Incredible footage of a massive landslide in Co Donegal has caused dismay, given the impact of the peat … Pile of peat (near Ardbeg) By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Peat is usually hand-cut, although progress has been made in the excavation and spreading of peat by mechanical methods. Peat bog near Enschede, Overijssel province, Netherlands. Peat is vegetable matter which has been partially carbonized due to the way in which it decomposes. NOW 50% OFF! Although peat is created under specific conditions (waterlogging, lack of oxygen or nutrients, high acidity or low temperatures), peat can be found in many types of wetlands. Traduções em contexto de "peat" en inglês-português da Reverso Context : peat-bog, peat moss Siobhán's Irish Firewood is this traditionally harvested, rough Irish turf. Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and anaerobic conditions. Peat is only a minor contributor to the world energy supply. Peat definition is - turf. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Peat accumulates extremely slowly and bogs are often thousands of years old leading to peat being broadly classified as a fossil fuel. Given that peat harvesting is destructive to wetland habitats, its use as a soil amendment has been discouraged by conservationists. Peat moss (Sphagnum) is one of the most common constituents of peat. Peat bogs can range in depth from six to 16 feet. The formation of peat is the first step in the formation of coal. 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